During the war, he was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Ferdinand II during the civil war. Gutmann, ‘The Origins of the Thirty Years War', Journal of Interdisciplinary History , xviii (1988), 749–70. Revolt broke out when the government decided to raise the price of bread. In Matthias. Thesis: the Thirty Years' War was caused primarily by religious reasons, but also political purposes played a key role in propagating the war. The Habsburg cause in the next few years would seem to suffer unrecoverable reverses. The Winter King fled to Holland, while the leaders of the Bohemian revolt were publicly executed in Prague in 1621. On 27 November 1619, Gabor received reports that a large Polish Catholic army assisting Ferdinand had entered upper Hungary and cut his communications with his Transylvanian heartland, forcing Bethlen to rush back to Hungary as Thurn returned to Bohemia. In 1618, the Bohemian Estates deposed the Catholic Ferdinand II as King of Bohemia. It is widely recognised as a period of great change, either as a gradual transition or as a sharper turning point, but always associated with … Ferdinand provoked the Bohemian Revolt by reversing policies of limited toleration, thus helping to spread and to prolong the Thirty Years’ War. The estates were almost entirely Prot Bohemian Revolt Period: 1618-1625 The election of the Catholic zealot Ferdinand, Archduke of Styria, as King of Bohemia caused the Bohemian Protestants to fear for their religious freedom, and in May 1618, at Hradcany castle, two Catholic councillors (Martinitz[?] The Spanish Crown had interests in maintaining the Holy Roman Empire as a stable ally; a critical trade route, the "Spanish Road", extended from the Mediterranean to Brussels. Most … Note the monument to the right of the castle tower. In 1609, Emperor Rudolf II of Germany issued the Letter of Majesty in an attempt to ensure religious tolerance, allowing for the imperial state of Bohemia to manage its own religious affiars. White Mountain. Battle of Pilsen (1618, November 21) Battle of Záblatí (1619, June 10) While Spain had to focus on quelling the Dutch Revolt in the Netherlands, they sent 7,000 veteran Spanish Army troops to Bohemia by mid-1619 with the goal of crushing the Protestant uprising there. As Mortimer points out, Christian’s motives were not exactly clear, but with the entrance of Denmark into the war, the ‘Bohemian revolt and its aftermath moved from being a series of relatively localized campaigns, centred successively around Bohemia, the Palatinate, and Westphalia, to become the full-scale international conflict known as the Thirty Years War’ (p. 259). Wisternitz. Related posts: What are the four phases of […] Remarkably, although injured, they survived. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for The Battle of the White Mountain 1620 and the Bohemian Revolt, 1618-1622 (Century of the Soldier) at Amazon.com. The Bohemian Revolt Edit Time: 1618–1625 Emperor Matthias, who had no children, had died leaving the throne to Ferdinand II. The Bohemian Revolt. The united Catholic armies then invaded Bohemia and, on 8 November 1620, they met the Bohemian rebels just beyond the walls of Prague at White Mountain. The Bohemian Revolt. However, Prince of Transylvania Gabriel Bethlen began his conquest of Habsburg Hungary shortly after, defeating the last Habsburg army in the region before moving up to the Danube and meeting up with Thurn to besiege Vienna a second time. However, the death of Emperor Matthias emboldened the rebellious Protestant leaders, who had been on the verge of a settlement. They were joined in the revolt by much of Upper Austria, whose nobility was then chiefly Lutheran and Calvinist. On 20 January 1620, Bethlen decided to end his support for the Bohemians. Given the relatively great number of Protestants in the kingdom, including some of the nobles, the king's unpopularity soon caused the Bohemian Revolt. In mid-June of 1618, the Bohemians wrote to the Protestant Union and asked for full admittance and military support, offering Frederick V the kingship of Bohemia; they also offered the same to the rulers of Savoy, Saxony, and Transylvania. Frederick, now landless, made himself a prominent exile abroad and tried to curry support for his cause in Sweden, the Netherlands and Denmark. In 1612, Rudolf II died and was replaced by Matthias I, who was a hardline Catholic and began to roll back on religious freedom. Hence he argues that the Bohemian revolt of 1618 was not, as has often been suggested, merely the spark to the powder keg, but the initial substantive cause of the war. Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. Bohemia Electoral Palatinate Transylvania, Holy Roman Empire Spanish Empire Catholic League Saxony, Jindrich Matyas Thurn Ernst von Mansfeld Frederick V Gabriel Bethlen, Matthias I Ferdinand II Count of Bucquoy Philip III Ambrogio Spinola Count Tilly John George I. Economy of HRE was lagging once the New World discovery The Bohemian Revolt The Bohemian Revolt By the beginning of the seventeenth century Catholicism and Protestantism had achieved a rough equality within the German states, symbolized by the fact that of the seven electors who chose the Holy Roman Emperor, three were Catholic, three protestant and the seventh was emperor himself, acting as king of Bohemia. About two-thirds of the population was Protestant and just 10% were Catholic. This was a serious blow to Protestant ambitions in the region. The Bohemian Revolt The revolt began when the Protestants threw two officials from a window - a symbolic act that became known as … 1. and Slavata[?]) They preferred the Protestant Frederick V, elector of the Palatinate (successor of Frederick IV, t… He was originally the Prince of Bohemia. The Bohemian Revolt (1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War.It was caused by both religious and power disputes (the estates were almost entirely Utraquist).The dispute culminated after several battles in the final Battle of White Mountain, where the estates suffered a decisive defeat. 19 The improving military situation allowed him to set out for Frankfurt on 10 July where the electors were gathering. In May 1618, the Calvinist revolt began when the rebels threw two Catholic members of the Bohemian royal council from a … The Austrians, who seemed to have intercepted every letter leaving Prague, made these duplicities public. The Saxons invaded, and the Spanish army in the west prevented the Protestant Union's forces from assisting. The Bohemians, desperate for allies against the Emperor, applied to be admitted into the Protestant Union, which was led by their original candidate for the Bohemian throne, the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector Palatine. The king-elect then sent two Catholic councillors (Vilem Slavata of Chlum and Jaroslav Bořita of Martinice) as his representatives to Prague Castle in May 1618. The region was a mixture of Calvinists, Lutherans, Catholics and Anabaptists. The Bohemian Revolt 1618–1621 Without heirs, Emperor Matthias sought to assure an orderly transition during his lifetime by having his dynastic heir (the fiercely Catholic Ferdinand of Styria, later Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor) elected to the separate royal thrones of Bohemia and Hungary. About two-thirds of the population was Protestant and just 10% were Catholic. The Duke of Savoy, however, sent 2,000 troops under Ernst von Mansfeld and financial aid to assist the Bohemians, and they captured Pilsen in May 1618, marking the start of military hostilities. [1] Some of the Protestant leaders of Bohemia feared they would be losing the religious rights granted to them by Emperor Rudolf II in his Letter of Majesty (1609). On 23 May 1618, a group of Protestant nobles went to the Hradcany royal castle to meet with the imperial governors. Without heirs, Emperor Matthias sought to assure an orderly transition during his lifetime by having his dynastic heir (the fiercely Catholic Ferdinand of Styria, later Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor) elected to the separate royal thrones of Bohemia and Hungary. On 23 May, an assembly of Protestants seized them and threw them (and also secretary Philip Fabricius) out of the palace window, which was some 17 metres (56 ft) off the ground. The Bohemian Revolt (German: Böhmischer Aufstand ; Czech: České stavovské povstání ; 1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. To senior management changes intercepted every letter leaving Prague, on 8 November 1620 and most influential friends Bohemia. Overall victory had the Bohemian revolt were publicly executed in Prague in 1621 Bohemian independence throughout article... 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